Ancient Egyptian Coins

In the captivating world of ancient Egypt, a remarkable aspect of their economic history was the use of coins as a form of currency. Ancient Egyptian coins offer valuable insights into the civilization’s trade, craftsmanship, and the significance of currency in a society shaped by warfare and tools. In this article, we explore the fascinating story of ancient Egyptian coins, shedding light on their usage, design, and enduring legacy.

The Advent of Ancient Egyptian Coins

The concept of using coins as a medium of exchange emerged in ancient Egypt during the Greco-Roman period, which spanned from the 4th century BCE to the 7th century CE. Prior to this period, ancient Egyptians engaged in barter trade, using commodities like grain, livestock, and precious metals as a form of payment.

Greek and Roman Influence

With the arrival of the Greeks and later the Romans, the use of coinage became prevalent in Egypt. Greek rulers, such as Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt after his death, introduced their coinage system, which was then continued by the Roman emperors. These coins were typically made of precious metals like gold, silver, and bronze.

Ancient Egyptian Coins: Designs and Symbolism

Ancient Egyptian coins were not only utilitarian but also served as a means of propaganda and promotion of the ruling authority. They were adorned with intricate designs and symbolic images that reflected the power and authority of the issuing rulers.

Portraits of Rulers

Many ancient Egyptian coins featured portraits of reigning pharaohs, Greek kings, or Roman emperors. These portraits conveyed the ruler’s image, reinforcing their authority and legitimacy. Some coins depicted gods and goddesses, emphasizing the ruler’s divine connections.

Symbols of Deities and Power

Apart from portraits, ancient Egyptian coins showcased symbols of deities, animals, and objects representing power and prosperity. The images of gods and goddesses, such as Isis and Serapis, were often featured on coins to invoke divine protection and blessings upon the kingdom.

Use of Coins in Trade and Society

The introduction of coins in ancient Egypt facilitated trade and commerce. The standardized weight and value of coins made transactions more efficient and eliminated the need for constant weighing and evaluation of commodities during exchange.

Coins in Warfare and Tribute

Coins played a role in warfare and diplomacy as well. They were used to pay soldiers and mercenaries, and as a form of tribute or taxation from conquered territories. Coins with the ruler’s image symbolized the ruler’s sovereignty over the region where they circulated.

Legacy of Ancient Egyptian Coins

The use of coins as currency in ancient Egypt left a lasting legacy. While the Greek and Roman influence waned over time, the concept of using coins as a medium of exchange persisted through various dynasties. The use of coins became more widespread in later periods of Egyptian history, and the numismatic artifacts serve as valuable historical records today.


Ancient Egyptian coins stand as testaments to the economic, political, and cultural interactions between ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. These coins, with their striking designs and symbolism, offer a glimpse into the rulers’ authority and the society’s economic activities. The use of coins in ancient Egypt represents a crucial step in the evolution of currency, providing a foundation for the monetary systems that followed and leaving behind a numismatic legacy that continues to captivate historians and collectors alike.

Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt
History Channel: Ancient Egypt
Live Science: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt for Kids
British Museum: Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt