What was life expectancy in ancient egypt?

Understanding life expectancy in ancient Egypt can offer valuable insights into the health, lifestyle, and living conditions of this civilization. While life expectancy has varied over different periods in ancient Egypt, it is generally believed that the average lifespan was significantly lower than today due to factors such as disease, diet, and access to medical care.

Average Lifespan in Ancient Egypt

Though there is no definitive consensus, many Egyptologists estimate that the average life expectancy in ancient Egypt was around 30 to 40 years. However, this figure can be misleading. High infant mortality rates, a common issue in ancient societies, significantly lower the average. If an individual survived past infancy and early childhood, they had a reasonable chance of living into middle age and beyond, provided they did not succumb to illness or injury.

Influence of Social Status

Social status played a role in life expectancy. Pharaohs and nobles, with their wealth and access to better nutrition and medical care, often lived longer than the average Egyptian, sometimes into their 70s or 80s. On the other end of the spectrum, slaves and laborers, who often lived in harsh conditions and performed strenuous work, generally had lower life expectancies.

Impact of Disease and Healthcare

Like all ancient societies, Egypt was susceptible to epidemics and diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, and parasitic infections. Dental disease was also common due to the gritty bread that caused wear and tear on teeth. However, ancient Egyptians had an impressive understanding of medicine for their time. Medical papyri, such as the Ebers Papyrus and the Edwin Smith Papyrus, demonstrate a sophisticated knowledge of treating a variety of ailments, suggesting that healthcare could have a positive impact on life expectancy.

Insights from Archaeology

Physical anthropological studies of ancient Egyptian mummies and skeletal remains provide crucial information on life expectancy. These studies can reveal signs of diseases, nutritional deficiencies, physical strain, and other factors contributing to mortality. They can also offer insights into the individual’s age at death, helping to paint a more accurate picture of life expectancy in different periods.


Life expectancy in ancient Egypt, much like any historical period, was a complex interplay of factors including social status, health, and occupational hazards. While life was undoubtedly short by modern standards, ancient Egyptians developed remarkable medical knowledge that allowed them to mitigate some of the health challenges of the time. Understanding life expectancy in this context provides a more nuanced picture of daily life in ancient Egypt, furthering our appreciation of this remarkable civilization.

Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt
History Channel: Ancient Egypt
Live Science: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt for Kids
British Museum: Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt