Ancient Egyptian Slaves and Servants

In the annals of ancient Egyptian history, alongside the grandeur and achievements, lies a darker aspect that cannot be overlooked—the existence of slaves and servants. While ancient Egypt is renowned for its awe-inspiring monuments, advanced culture, and profound religious beliefs, it is crucial to acknowledge and understand the realities of slavery and servitude that were an unfortunate part of this remarkable civilization.

The Reality of Slavery in Ancient Egypt

Slavery was an integral part of ancient Egyptian society, with enslaved individuals being acquired through various means. Some slaves were captured as prisoners of war, while others were born into slavery, as children of enslaved parents. Additionally, debt bondage was another way individuals could find themselves in servitude. The enslaved were considered the property of their owners, who held complete control over their lives and labor.

Roles and Duties of Slaves

Ancient Egyptian slaves were engaged in a wide range of roles and duties, depending on the needs of their owners. Some worked as agricultural laborers, toiling in the fields and contributing to the kingdom’s agricultural productivity. Others were involved in construction projects, including the building of the magnificent pyramids, temples, and other monumental structures that continue to inspire awe to this day.

Servants in Ancient Egypt

In addition to slaves, there were also servants in ancient Egypt. Servants held a different status compared to slaves, as they were not considered property but were rather hired or employed to perform specific tasks. Servants were an essential part of the households of the elite, nobility, and pharaohs, taking on roles such as personal attendants, cooks, maids, and butlers.

Life of Slaves and Servants

The lives of slaves and servants in ancient Egypt were arduous and often fraught with hardship. They were subject to the will of their owners, who could punish or reward them as they saw fit. Slaves and servants worked long hours, often enduring physical labor and challenging conditions. However, it is important to note that the experiences of slaves and servants could vary significantly depending on their individual circumstances and the disposition of their owners.

Attempts at Abolition

While slavery was a deeply ingrained institution in ancient Egypt, there are instances in history where attempts were made to alleviate the suffering of slaves. For example, Pharaoh Akhenaten, known for his religious reforms, issued proclamations aimed at easing the burden of those in servitude. However, these efforts were limited in scope and did not lead to the outright abolition of slavery.

Impact on Ancient Egyptian Society

The presence of slavery and servitude in ancient Egypt had a profound impact on the society as a whole. The exploitation of a labor force that was largely disenfranchised perpetuated social and economic inequalities. At the same time, the availability of cheap labor contributed to the construction of grand monuments and temples that continue to be revered for their architectural brilliance.

Legacy and Lessons

The legacy of slavery in ancient Egypt serves as a poignant reminder of the complexities of human history. It highlights the importance of acknowledging and confronting uncomfortable truths about the past. The lessons learned from this aspect of ancient Egyptian society can help us strive towards a more equitable and just world, where all individuals are treated with dignity and respect.


The existence of slavery and servitude in ancient Egypt is an unfortunate reality that cannot be ignored. While the civilization’s accomplishments and cultural contributions are undeniably remarkable, it is essential to remember and understand the darker aspects of its history. By acknowledging and learning from the past, we can move forward with a deeper appreciation of the complexities of human societies and work towards creating a more compassionate and inclusive future for all.

Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt
History Channel: Ancient Egypt
Live Science: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt for Kids
British Museum: Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt