Food and Drink in Ancient Egypt

The diet of ancient Egyptians, rich in grains, fruits, and vegetables, provides fascinating insights into the civilization’s agricultural practices, culinary techniques, and daily life. With the Nile River at its heart, Egypt’s agricultural abundance greatly influenced its food and drink culture.

Staple Foods in Ancient Egypt

The diet of ancient Egyptians was largely plant-based. Bread, made from emmer wheat or barley, was a dietary staple, consumed at almost every meal. Other common foods included onions, leeks, garlic, lentils, chickpeas, cucumbers, and lettuce.

Fruits such as dates, figs, and grapes were popular as snacks or dessert. Honey was the primary sweetener, as cane sugar was not yet known.

Meat, Dairy, and Fish

While the regular consumption of meat was a privilege mostly reserved for the elite, ordinary Egyptians did partake in meat during festivals or special occasions. Cattle, sheep, and goats were the primary sources of meat, while duck and geese were the most common poultry.

Fish from the Nile River was a crucial protein source for those living near the river. The fish was often salted and dried to preserve it.

Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter were also part of the ancient Egyptian diet, usually obtained from cows, goats, and sheep.


Beer was the national drink of ancient Egypt, enjoyed by both adults and children. It was often a dietary staple, consumed daily and offered to the gods. Beer was brewed from barley, and the brewing process involved baking, mashing, and fermenting the barley.

Wine, typically made from grapes, was also consumed but was generally reserved for ceremonial use and the upper classes.

Culinary Techniques and Dining Practices

Most ancient Egyptian food was simply prepared, either boiled or roasted. Baking, particularly bread, was a vital part of the daily meal preparation.

Meals were typically communal, with the family gathering around a low table. Food was often eaten with fingers, and bread was sometimes used as a utensil for scooping up foods.

Food in Religious and Funerary Practices

Food played a significant role in religious and funerary practices. Gods were offered food and drink in daily temple rituals, and feasting was a common feature of religious festivals. In terms of funerary customs, food and drink were often placed in tombs as offerings for the deceased to sustain them in the afterlife.

Conclusion: Food as a Reflection of Life

The food and drink in ancient Egypt provide a taste of a civilization molded by its geography, resources, and beliefs. From the staple bread and beer to the communal meals and temple offerings, the cuisine of ancient Egypt offers a unique lens to understand the lives, traditions, and culture of one of history’s most remarkable civilizations.

Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt
History Channel: Ancient Egypt
Live Science: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt for Kids
British Museum: Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt